The Cappadocia region of Turkey is enchanting with narrow canyons covered in cone-shaped chimneys formed from volcanic ash (tufa) that fell 14 million years ago. Dwellings date to 4,000 BC, but The Hittites dug out the soft stone in 2,000 BC and named this place “Cappadocia” which means “Land of beautiful horses.” The name and love for horses stuck and the two volcanoes seem to be extinct.
Some of these homes were multi-roomed with central firepits and crop storage rooms that remained cool year-round. Many had pigeon nests. If they needed more rooms, out came the tools and an addition was dug out.
Somebody got the great idea of moving certain businesses underground, such as wine making where temperature is important. That action developed into another question, “Maybe we should build underground cities for times of siege or attack?” Especially with invasions by the Greeks, Romans, and even the Turks. Animals remained on the upper floors. Narrow and short tunnels were created allowing only one person to enter at a time. This made it easier to whack invaders. Huge boulders were rolled and locked in place from the inside on each level.
I visited Ozkonak and met the farmer (Latif Acar) who discovered this 8th century AD city in 1972. The underground could shelter 30,000 people for 3 months. Only 4 of the 10 floors are currently open. Quite amazing that people could live with water from the well and fresh air through ventilation shafts.
During the middle ages, St. Basil and other Christians settled above ground in the hope for a little peace and quiet. These people lived in communal towns where each home had a church. The Goreme Open Air Museum is really interesting. There are many pigeon nests because they sold the fertilizer before commercial products. Although with current prices, farmers may go back to this simple plant nutrient for the surrounding vineyards. The frescoes in the churches range from simplistic ( and somewhat puzzling) to quite detailed and beautiful. ( 10th century AD to 12th) . Check out the naked saint with a cactus hiding the genitals. I’m not sure what the cockroach or louse figure had to do with religion, bottom left. Send me a note if you have the answer.
A hot air balloon ride in Cappadocia is worth every penny spent. Quite magical to see so many balloons lifting up in the dark while watching the sun rise over the unique landscape.