Ephesus– Amazon Queen or goddesses ?

So many rumors surround the naming of Ephesus. Was the ancient city named after Ephos, queen of the female Amazon warriors of what is now the Ukraine? There may be a connection, because the old testament name for this town was Smyrna–which has origins in that myth. What we do know is that Greek colonists took over in the 10th century, BC. and their goddess, Artemis became the mother goddess. Two statues depicting her are now in the Ephesus museum.

Although Artemis protected fertility and plenty, those aren’t many breasts (archeologists declare) but are either gourds or bulls testicles ( So many fertility symbols !). Her robe is decorated with animals and bees are on her feet. These statues had been buried before a seige, which protected them for centuries.

The acropolis, built on top of the hill in 550 BC, was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Some of the marble panels are in Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. All that remains is toppled stones. I wish I had more time there to hike up and look at Ephesus from that vantage point.

The Roman’s took over Ephesus in 129 BC until 395 AD. This is the classical period when streets were paved with marble and intricate mosaics. the 3rd picture once led to the now dry harbor where ships rocked.

Expansion led to many important buildings :

The Roman senate held government discussions and voting at the State Agora. There is an older Greek agora about 6′ below this one. The bottom picture is the exit from the senate, which the Roman’s called the vomitarium. Don’t you love their use of words? Especially applies to government debates.

The library of Celsus, which was dedicated to Emperor Tiberius, was the third largest library of the ancient world. Alexandria in Egypt had the largest library followed by Pergamum, which is also in Turkey. The three female statues in niches on the façade were Virtue, Wisdom and Knowledge. There is a tunnel inside to the brothels across the street (pictured last) Women weren’t allowed in the library. Can you imagine the conversation? “Hey Honey–I’m going to go read one of the 12,000 scrolls tonight.” Yeah. Right.

There is a triple entrance ( Gate of Mazaeus and Mithripates) to the right of the library that leads into the 364′ (square) commercial Agora.

The market once stood two stories high with double columned porticos. One of the more famous workers was St. Paul—He worked in a tentmaking and leather shop here until he got arrested and then got railroaded out of town.

There are 6 aqueducts that supplied water to the city. A steady stream ran under the public toilets washing away the offal and other pipes fed the Scholastic baths pictured (rt) below.

The theater had 25,000 seats. Parts of it were closed off when I was there in March, 2022 for restoration and expansion. ( shucks! no climbing to the top) the last image is from a book showing what the stage screen looked like.

This takes me to St. Paul and St. John. Ephesus is one of seven cities mentioned in the book of Revelation and the Gospel of St. John was written here. There are early Christian symbols, called, Ichthys etched in stone around the city. The circle holds the Greek symbols :I (Jesus) X (Christ) O (God) Y (Son) and E (savior). Within the circle is also the earliest sign of the cross.

This was a secret way of identifying Christian dwellings. Eventually a Roman general figured it out, which led to arrests and massacre. St. John’s gravesite is in Ephesus, but it’s not clear if he was martyred or not. The other rumor is that Mary, the mother of Jesus, also lived near Ephesus because Jesus asked John to take care of her.

The Temple of Domitian was built in 1 AD and dedicated to the brutal emperor Domitian. Ephesus was looking for Roman favor. He wasn’t popular with anyone and eventually was killed by a worker (slave?)

Hadrian Temple- (130-132)-was dedicated to the Roman emperor and his statue probably stood inside but it’s been lost. The bust of Tyche ( goddess of chance and fortune) is surrounded by acanthus leaves ( immortality and resurrection). Medusa’s head is quite lovely with all those snakes. Her symbol wards off evil in a convoluted thought. She became evil– after she was wronged– but became a badass who meted out justice by destroying evilness and turning men into stone.

Hercules Gate–divided uptown from downtown. Currently, there are only 2 pillars but the 2-storey gate would have had 12. The arch is gone and the winged Nike found elsewhere in Ephesus is thought to have been part of that arch. 2nd picture is walking between the columns of the gate.

Trajan’s Fountain was built in the second century to honor the emperor Trajan. It had two ornamental pools, one in front the other in back. Water flowed from a central pillar where a huge statue of Trajan rested his feet on the world. There were many statues which are in the archeological museum in Ephesus. This fountain is still being restored and is smaller than the original.

other symbols, signs, and fountains in Ephesus

What made Ephesus important was her busy harbor that slowly filled with silt from the Kucukmenderes River. Dredging was attempted, even back then, but eventually malaria and diseases followed. Today, the filled-in harbor is 2.5 miles inland. Much of the site is still unexcavated, so imagine what future generations might find!

Sailing on a Gulet

A traditional Turkish Gulet is a wood boat with two or three masts that sails the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea. We boarded our ship in the cute port town of Marmaris for a 4 day adventure.

The Sadri Usta was our beautiful teak boat with an amazing outside eating area. After meeting our wonderful crew, we went to one of 7 cabins to unpack. Queen-sized beds, shiny teak woodwork, and plenty of light from our large back windows that opened. This ship has private en-suite bathrooms with showers. There isn’t air-conditioning but I didn’t even notice as the ship sped across the waves. Wine glass in hand while reclining on the aft deck after an excellent meal and viewing stunning sunsets–Life doesn’t get any better than this. After our tours there were options for swimming and kayaking.

Day 1: After anchoring in Ekincik Cove, we transferred onto a smaller boat to ride up the Dalyan River to visit the 2 century (AD) seaport city of Kaunos. It used to be a seaport until silt filled the harbor and the site was deserted.

Kaunos is very close to another ancient rich city( Lycia), so we puttered along to view the 4th century cliff tombs. An interesting side-note is that Lycia is mentioned in Homer’s Iliad.

Don’t miss the little town of Dalyan for super shopping deals, especially for shoes and leather purses.

The next day we dropped anchor near a spot called Cleopatra’s Baths. It’s rumored to have been built by Mark Anthony for his love but there’s nothing to support the claim. Ol’ Mark should have gotten a historical pat-on-the-back notation if he actually did this for lovely Cleo. After landing, we went on a nice hike and were able to see a Lydian cistern and ruins before dropping down the hill to the turquoise sea once again.

Later in the afternoon we landed on Gemiler Island which was a resupply destination for pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem. Not all of them made it. There are tombs all over. The most famous resident was Saint Nicholas. Santa was in Turkey all this time–not Scandinavia. He was buried here in 326, but his relics were removed in 650 for safer keeping to the nearby town of Myra. The ruins of Christian churches built between the 4th and 6th century are fun to explore, and if you hike to the top of the hill, you’ll find a small lighthouse. The views are top of the world from up there.

Day 3 we landed near Gemiler Beach to go to the Kayakoy Greek ghost town which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The town originated in the 14th century but in 1920, after the Greco-Turkish war, the people were forced on a death march. Any survivors were shipped to Greece where they became refugees. The population exchange was based solely on religion. Turkey wanted a Muslim country untainted by Christians. This is what happens when countries are led by theocracy. Furthermore, Turkey insisted that the lesser population of Muslims living in Turkey MUST return and occupy the deserted Greek Heritage homes. However, the Muslims feared the ghosts of the tortured people. The returning Turks were farmers and this saved these ruins because Kayakoy was settled high up on unfavorable land. The original residents were exceptional craftsmen and didn’t need fertile ground. Another interesting fact is the remaining non-conforming religions in Turkey were eliminated in one swoop by one edict: If you became Muslim—you didn’t have to pay taxes. Currently, a few artists live here.

We disembarked in the lovely town of Fethiye. I so could live there during the winter. I see myself in a small place with a built-in pool and maid service with delivery of fresh fish to my door.

A few more. I can’t resist!

Keep a lookout for my next and last post for Turkey : EPHESUS

Ruins of Perga and Aspendos Archeological Site

We drove from Cappadocia on a well-maintained highway that takes you up and over the jagged-peaked Taurus Mountains. (**side-note–they drive on the right side.) When we crossed the summit a whole different world appeared. We went from captivating dessert to a lush Mediterranean landscape ripe with citrus trees heavy with fruit.

Antalya, on the SW coast, is the perfect place to stay to visit Perga and Aspendos. Have I told you that I could easily live here during the winter months?

Perga was an ancient Greek city founded in 1209 BC. although bronze-aged people lived here earlier. It was a big city covering 9.3 miles although it’s not all uncovered yet and extensive repairs have the theater closed this year. Alexander the Great used Perga as an important base to spread invasion inland around 334 BC.. He made Greek the language and written word of the land. The Hellenistic gates were built during the reign of Emperor Hadrianus (117-138AD). Currently, archeologists are repairing this area but the surrounding (later) Roman expansion with niches for marble statues can be explored.

Perga really sparkled with the Romans occupation (1-2AD) when the town grew past the Greek Gates with the additions of a Theater, stadium, a marble floored Agora (market), and a pretty amazing Roman bath. After St. Paul and St. Barnabas set up a mission here, there were 2 basilicas built that I believe are in ruins.

STADIUM–held 12,000 spectators to all kinds of games and races.

AGORA–the marble tiled floor is covered for protection but it’s still there! Imagine this space with vendors under a covered roof and a little temple in the middle?

Main Street—imagine cascading water that flowed down fountains in the middle of the street. The marble street has etched grooves from many chariots that traveled on it. Did you know that the ancient width of a chariot’s wheels is the width of track for a railroad? True!

The Roman Bath had 4 marble mosaic floored rooms: Changing room, cold bath, warm bath and hot bath. You can see in spots where furnaces and waterpipes were under the floor. This place had exquisite marble statues all over the place! When you return to Antalya, go to the archeology museum to see them.

Benefactor fountains–there were beautiful fountains all over, fed from the nearby aqueduct pictured below, bottom left. The fountain was so large, I couldn’t get it all in one picture and it isn’t all repaired yet. The statues installed here are also in the museum.

Nearby is Aspendos , another ancient city in ruins but the theater is the most intact in the world. For this we can thank the Turks who rebuilt it and used it as a caravan stop. This is also another check-mark for Atlas Obscura enthusiasts.

Originally, this was built during the time of Marcus Aurelius ( 160-180 AD) and held up to 8,500 seated and standing spectators. The width is 315′ across. There is a beautiful 2-story backdrop and two towers that flank the stage. Today, this theater is still being used for opera, ballet and music.

Nearby is a little street side restaurant serving Gozleme—flatbread with melted cheese and spinach.

Stairway to Heaven–Skellig Michael

Over 600 stone steps shimmer silver under a full moon. Any less light, a night pilgrimage would be suicide ascending this steep splinter of rock rising from the sea.  My breath races as my boots seek safe purchase.

High above, torches cast golden globes of illumination from the medieval church where twelve shaved and hooded monks are dressed in rough homespun. They sing the Gregorian chant; their voices weaving an invisible Celtic design through the air, forming a veil of peace. Upwards I climb towards Christ’s Saddle, a strip of land between two 714’ peaks. With God’s grace, I’ll arrive safe.

I imagine this is what it was like long ago on the holy island of Skellig Michael. Coptic monks from Egypt built the six dry stone beehive cells and two oratories as early as the 6th century. Details are murky, but St. Fionan might have had a hand in the establishment of this and eight other monastic islands nearby. One thing is certain, in a written report, the abbot was taken by Vikings in 823 and he died of starvation in captivity. It’s interesting to me that the sweep of Orthodox Christianity sprang from Egypt, not the Roman Catholic Church. How did this odd connection happen? Most likely through trade of Irish tin into Egypt, but early pilgrimages to the Holy land were already established.

Men have wandered in and out of Great Skellig since 1,400 B.C. when mythology mentions a shipwreck and drowning of a Celtic King. Look around. He’s supposed to be buried on the island. Long ago armies regrouped here before invading the mainland. But settlement didn’t occur until the self-sufficient monk’s arrival. Why did they choose to live on a harsh, towering rock? They sought isolation for meditation, prayer, and learning but there’s ancient mysticism in the shape of Egypt’s pyramids as well as this island’s form.

Skellig Michael happens to be rich in stone for building materials and food (fish in the sea, seals, nesting birds or their eggs) but very poor in fresh water which led to an ingenious cistern and filtration system.

IMG_0802 (1)

The rectangular opening by the man’s feet is an opening to a cistern.

There’s a hidden 9th century hermitage on the north peak that I’d love to see some day. Access isn’t allowed, although I did read that “arrangements” can be made to visit it. Today, we visit the south-facing peak. The monks discovered a microclimate here for growing crops and they kept goats for meat and milk. IMG_0827

Behind the medieval church, there’s a cemetery with ancient burials and an eroded high cross. Inside the chapel there are two heartbreaking graves from 1871. The lighthouse keeper lost his two-year-old and four-year-old boys. He asked for removal from his post after his third child became sick. Through the eastern window, you can see the uninhabited bird sanctuary of Little Skellig. It is the largest protected breeding area of the northern gannet with over 30,000 pairs.

Why was the monastery abandoned? There are many answers, such as Viking raids and increased storms from climate change which also brought colder weather and less rain. Without fresh water, the island failed to support life. The entire monastic order moved to Ballinskelligs hermitage in the 13th century.

Great Skellig is 7.2 miles west of Portmagee in County Kerry on the Iveragh Peninsula.

Only a handful of captains have permits for once a day landings to the UNESCO heritage site. Go to http://www.skelligexperience.com/ for a list of excursions from May-October. You must arrange your dates well in advance as seats sell out fast. If you’re lucky, you’ll get to meet Des Lavelle, our charming expert on all things Skellig and the author of The Skellig Story. Ask him to tell you the interesting story about how he discovered the island’s past and have him autograph his book which is sold in town gift shops.


Des giving me a hug…because I’m from Montana and he has family connections in the US.

The Star Wars movies filmed here have made the island a place of pilgrimage and wonder once again. Before you disembark your boat, remember there are no facilities or services on the island. Bring hiking poles for more secure footing on the descent.

Blind Man’s Cove is where a modern dock accommodates tourists if the sea cooperates, which isn’t a sure thing. The other two sites are considered dangerous and date back to early settlement.

Puffins, razorbills, petrels and gannets breed here so your journey up and down the stones will mean stopping to take dozens of photos. One can never have enough puffin pictures.

Circling the island, grey seals rest on rocks or stick their heads out of the water to observe crazy humans in boats. IMG_0889The lighthouse seems to be perched too low and I wonder if waves pound the roof in winter. Dolphins race alongside the boat, cresting and diving in the wake and whales have been spotted.

On the way back to Portmagee, our spiritual journey took another leap. A corona formed an irridescent circle around the sun. Closing my eyes, I sang my own psalm of praise and blessing. IMG_0907After a full day of exploration, we returned to beautiful Portmagee for a fine seafood meal and live music.

Ancient Ireland—Nature’s Rhythm

Step into my time machine and buckle up for a wild ride. Leave your cell phone behind–Stone age people will sacrifice your life to the goddess if they find technology. Our first stop is 3,200 B.C. Ireland to a settlement along the River Boyne, called Newgrange.


later enclosure built downhill from Newgrange with stones from the temple

We’ve teleported to the far side of the river, allowing a walk through the village of thatched roof, wattle and timber dwellings. Metal smithing hasn’t been invented yet, but let me point out the men expertly flinting stone where they sit around the fire. Women work in the fields, tending crops and taking care of newly domesticated animals in penned enclosures. Leaving a nomad life behind, this community follows the rhythm of nature: warming of the earth, fertility of soil followed by harvest leading to preparation for winter darkness and death. They know the importance of the sun, measuring time and observing astronomy. With settlement, a religion honoring women has developed. The young girl rises to fertility. A new mother mysteriously births a child and then nourishes her young from her own body. If she lives long enough (doubtful) she will become a frail woman of forty years. Seasons of nature reflect seasons of life.

Let’s walk up the hill to the passage tomb and temple.img_0027 The entrance faces the rising sun. On the winter solstice, light enters the roof-box above the entrance, flashes down the narrow 60’ corridor and illuminates the back wall for seventeen minutes.img_0141 This engineering marvel measures 279’ wide, 39’ high, covering a little over an acre of land. Approximately 200,000 tons of rock, including a face of white quartz (collected from 25 miles to the south) and dark cobbled stone (collected from 25 miles to the north) outline the face of the temple.

547 huge inner slabs and outer kerbstones support the weighted structure.  It’s estimated that the monoliths were transported by river and then uphill to the site. Life is good and peace reigns, otherwise this marvel wouldn’t have been created.img_0029

There are many chamber and passage tombs all over Great Britain, but Newgrange is the grand cathedral because of extensive art work. The triple spiral represents the goddess, three female forms for eternity. Christianity stole the symbol, changing the threesome to the male Father, Son, and Holy Ghost after destroying matriarch religions and subjugating women as chattel.

Cupules carved into kerbstones appear in groups of 6 or 3. Is this a recording of events on a calendar or something else? Parallel lines lead to zigzags, or spirals. Unique triangles and diamond shapes might be a reminder to remain grounded to earth but keep focus on the spirit world. Or is the stylized shape a woman’s genitals, honoring where life begins?

Enter the passage, bending your head in submission. Notice the carvings inside, especially the outline of feminine hands. Think about them as we stand in the same spot. At the end, three side rooms face different directions: East, West, and North. Each chamber has a stone basin and two of them held cremated remains and bone remanents of at least 5 individuals. But the chamber on your right has a special carved basin made of granite. Human ash wasn’t found here. Maybe this was used as a birthing place with worshiped ancestors in the other chambers. Observing nature, would ancient people contemplate the complexity of reincarnation and renewal?

As decades progress, standing stones will be erected around the behemoth cairn. In our era there are 12 remaining but book the Bronze age time travel tour, to see a majestic 35 stone circle. You may also book the later Iron age journey, with the addition of pit circles and timber arches.  Six thousand years later, Newgrange remains a place of inspiration.

Hill of Tara

Let’s follow the light from burning bonfires atop the hill of Tara, the earthly portal to the ancient gods and the entrance of heaven. We are still in the stone age, but the later neolithic era. The 100 acre site is the coronation place for over 142 high Kings of Ireland and is the largest Celtic monument in Europe.  The ancient name was Liathdroim with dedication to the mother goddess Maeve. A text from around 600 A.D. states a contender for the throne from the chiefs of Ireland had to get drunk and marry the goddess in a ceremony. Women were treated as equals in this time, with all rights afforded men. In fact, a ring fort dedicated to a legendary warrior queen lies 1/2 mile from where we stand.

The oldest mound is a neolithic passage tomb that held hundreds of cremated remains as well as a rich burial of a young man. This is known as “the mound of hostages” and was constructed 5,000 years ago. The name implies the safety of this place where chieftains exchanged captive prisoners.

Moving to the north are ringforts, one with three banks known as the Rath of Synods and an Iron age earthwork with an internal ditch, thought to be the royal enclosure. This is the standing Stone of Destiny. If the would-be-king is righteous, the stone will roar three times. When I touched the phallic shaped stone, not even a whisper was heard. In myth, King Laoghaire is buried nearby in an upright position, dressed in full armor.

A grove of Hawthorn trees form a line. This is the tree of the goddess for seduction and fertility. To this day, women tie colored strings in the branches or leave notes and offerings.img_0095

Moving down the hill, there’s remains of a long ceremonial avenue or maybe a banquet hall. Debates continue over the function of the 656′ ruin. A 11th century text states a hall with over 140 entrances stood here.img_0164

If you visit in modern times, there’s a decommissioned Catholic church built above other ruins. Near an old wall there is an easily missed small standing stone. It’s believed that the figure of the fertility god, Cernunos is etched on the face.img_0160

Modern travelers can visit these sites as well as the Hill of Slane where St. Patrick defied the Celtic king in 433 AD, and 5th century Monasterboice, founded by St. Buite on a day trip from Dublin. We liked the small group size and reasonable rates with  https://www.daytoursunplugged.ie




In early 1960, a seven-year-old girl with a bowl-shaped haircut sank into her grandmother’s overstuffed chair. Following ritual, she grabbed a National Geographic Magazine, drawing her bobby socked feet up under the skirt of her Catholic school uniform. Before the girl opened the first page, her grandma placed an afghan across her lap. She was now ready for transport to exotic lands and alluring cultures. The wing chairs and floral wallpaper disappeared as she saw herself entering Angkor Wat, in a far-away place named Cambodia.




I am that child. Flash forward to 2018. Filled with excitement to be seeing the deserted city for the first time, I arrived armed with childhood memories. When I was young, I thought the Khmer Empire complex might be as large as my three-storied elementary school. Later, I reassessed. Maybe it would be huge, like my high school. Nothing prepared me for the actual size–ninety-six square miles of many temples, royal cities, villages, and hydraulically engineered moats that grew two or three crops of rice per year to feed the large population.

As my feet traversed the path traveled by an ancient, mighty culture, I reflected on images in my mind and felt unprepared for the complexity of the portraits and buildings carved from stone. Monkeys played in the brush or sat on motorcycles parked at the entrance.IMG_9610 I closed my eyes and took a moment to transport back in time, imagining the sounds of monks chanting, horns blowing, drums banging and dancers performing rituals.

Angkor Wat is a UNESCO treasure, but not the only jewel discovered in the jungle by French archeologists in 1914. There are over seventy archeological monuments representing different Kings from the 10th-13th centuries. Looking into the woods, I saw remains awaiting excavation.




We visited Banteay Srei, Angkor Wat, Angkor Thom and Ta Prohm. Each fortress, city, or monastery is distinct from the other.



Libraries for advanced learning




 Banteay Srei (citadel of women), established in 967, wasn’t built by a Khmer king but by Yajnavaraha, a scholar and philanthropist who helped those who suffered from illness, injustice, or poverty. If I could time travel, we might have been friends. The name of this temple relates to numerous, beautiful red stone carvings.





Some of the effigies are of dancing women. Many carved panels tell moral stories or ancient battles. Treasures have been stolen over the years. Phallic stones are missing.




A fellow tourist told me that when he first came here, it wasn’t safe to wander around the site as many land mines remained from the Pol Pot years of terror (1975-1979). Our guide told us that over 2,000 mines were removed. Approaching the temple on foot, I watched a young monk dressed in orange sitting under a tree. He was checking his cell phone for messages. IMG_9477This would have been very different from the life of a monk from long ago living in bare simplicity. His brother from long ago would have endured similar teachings but the need to interact with modern technology seems a long way from balanced karma.

Angkor Wat

When I was younger, I didn’t know that the word wat meant a Buddhist temple or vata from Sanskrit meaning ‘enclosure’. The full name means temple city and is built in a pyramid form to represent the sacred mountain, Meru. The five towers represent the peaks. It’s a visual reminder of the spiritual universe built by King Juryavarman 11 from 1113-1150, and is set inside a 570’ moat on about 500 acres.




There’s so much acreage but even sunrise is filled with hordes of people. These places would have been busy centuries ago as well, but with merchants selling wares and pilgrims carrying expensive gifts for the King or priests. Redemption carries a big price, then and now.

Getting into the complex structure is a challenge. The original steps are very narrow and steep, requiring the climbers to bend forward in submission and humility. Today, equally steep wood stairs at least offer a handhold for the faint of heart.




The temple is a series of rectangular sections with dark corridors leading to bright sunlit courtyards. Light and dark. Ying and Yang. Balance.

The carvings in the long hallways depict battle stories, similar to Helen of Troy, but Cambodian style. Another hall shows 37 heavens and 32 hells with terrible punishment for sinners. There are depictions carved in stone of long ago battles. Rounding another corner, I was impressed with a creation story.




There are small, very dark temples to Buddha spread throughout the sanctuary and it’s believed that Angkor may have been dedicated for the King’s funeral. I didn’t have my usual peaceful feeling, but rather felt fear and decay.




Leaving the darkness, I walked to the outer wall, admiring life-sized voluptuous dancers, cut from unyielding stone with diaphanous movement shown in wispy clothing. Some of the dancer’s breasts were destroyed, shot off by Pol Pot soldiers who occupied the site in the 1970’s.Those men had no regard for their ancient heritage or respect for women.

Angkor Thom




 Angkor Thom means great city, of the late 12th century by the magnanimous King Jayavarman V11. To enter, one must cross a causeway over a moat bordered by 54 stone figures. Demons are on the right and guardians on the left in reverse ideology.




Being left-handed, I appreciate the opposite thought. The city gate remains, and is large enough for elephants to pass through, but a tight squeeze for modern tour buses.

What I enjoyed about this place and this particular king was his love for common people. The carvings on the outer walls are dedicated to his subjects and show everyday life. There are people cooking, selling things and dancers. There are carvings dedicated to a midwife and women in labor that I especially appreciate because I was an L+D nurse. There are images of soldiers marching with spears, others are packed into boats, and one section shows the enemy being eaten by alligators.




Inside the sanctuary are pyramid-shaped buildings connected by narrow walkways. Certainly there are many more people visiting today than would have been allowed in the ancient past.




It’s hard to get photos without many multi-cultural faces jostling into you. Regardless, the immense faces carved in stone are majestic.




Is this a guardian of the past or an image of the king who commissioned this city?

Ta Prohm


Ta Prohm means monastery of the King and was constructed in the late 12th century to early 13th by the very same civic-minded Jayavarman V11 who built Angkor Thom. This was a Buddhist monastery and university built in a flat style rather than the earlier pyramid shape. Once upon a time, 18 high priests, 615 dancers and plenty of wealth flowed into this center and the surrounding village of 80,000 people. It would have been a bustling place for prayer, training, and study.




Archeologists decided this complex should retain the feeling of emergence from the jungle.This is the temple used in the Tomb Raider movies for the sense of discovery and adventure. Trees grow over sections of ancient walls. Stones have fallen down and are toppled about, looking like dice thrown by giants.




Everywhere there is a sense of being the first person to set eyes upon a place of great mystery. Being the most visited archeological site in Cambodia, I suggest going either early or late in the day when it may be possible to get a few photos without crowds.

We sat across the moat, looking at Angkor Wat while we ate (and enjoyed) jerky strips of water buffalo, frog legs, and snake meat washed down with local beer. Being open to immersion in another culture awakens the senses—touch, hearing, smell, taste and sight. The little girl who dreamed of travel and the adult I became united in a heartfelt moment at the golden hour. The sun slipped below the horizon and I realized that I must go back. Cambodia is a land of great history, amazing archeological sites and beautiful people.

Royal Wat Xieng Thong

After a delicious lunch at Joma Bakery in Luang Prabang, we visited Wat Xieng Thong, built in 1559 as a royal temple where kings were coronated until 1975.


Wood doors covered in gold tell the life of Buddha. Enter the building to see carved Naga on the ceremonial cremation barge used for the kings remains. These snake figures are said to be a supernatural deity, and can be a protectress or demon, guardian and demigod. Evidently, some of them can turn themselves into human form, which might be kind of freaky.


Images of Buddha with various hand positions (called mudras) instruct us to follow peace, banish fear, quell demons or practise charity.


I was busy looking at sparkling glass tiles and painting on the wood beams of winged Pegasus and didn’t realize that the tour had moved to another building.


Three children were busy getting their fortunes. Delighted, they showed me how to pull a numbered stick out of a container and how to foretell my own future. Later, I learned doing this three times would have been better.IMG_9067

Across the courtyard is the temple where the Laotian Kings were coronated and where the sacred boat is kept.


Another favorite building is the Sim, or congregation hall, with the outer wall decorated in glass tiles in the shape of a tree of life that shimmer in the light.


This golden guy is a cautionary tale about a peeping Tom and he got caught.  Of course, he had karma payback for his naughty actions.


In 1887, when rebels invaded and destroyed Luang Prabang, this complex was saved because the leader had once been a young monk who studied here.


Venice of the East (Ayutthaya, Thailand)

In 1350, a king of Siam relocated to a conflux of three rivers, 53 miles north of Bangkok, and called the royal city Ayutthaya. It’s believed he was escaping a smallpox outbreak in the old capital.


Imagine hundreds of temples and stupas sheathed in gold covering 9 square miles. By 1700, over a million people lived in Ayutthaya, making it the largest city in the world at that time. An amazing number (thirty-five) Kings ruled from here. Surrounded by water, the island was called Venice of the East.



Wat Mahathat means temple of the great relic and is one of the oldest (early 1350’s) constructed from cantilevered brick and once sheathed in smooth materials. It is surrounded by towering cremation and meditation stupas. This wat was also home to the supreme patriarch of the Buddhist monks.



In 1767 The Burmese army destroyed the royal city, murdering and raping the population and hacking hundreds of heads off the Buddha statues. This decapitation showed their power but also had a reason— gold and jewels were often hidden inside.



A tree grew around one Buddha head, creating this eerie scene within the ancient complex of Wat Mahathat.IMG_0011The entire ancient site isn’t under UNESCO preservation at this time. Touring the city requires a bike, a hired cab or jambo for the day. If you want to step back in time, you can even ride an elephant, just like royalty of old.



Ancient Crossroads, Patan & Bhaktapur Nepal

Patan is known as the Royal City or City of Beauty and is located five miles south of Katmandu on the southern side of the Bagmati River. It is one of three settlements of the ancient Kings of Nepal with over 1,200 monuments. Another UNESCO site is eight miles from Katmandu, named Bhaktapur or place of devotees with the best preserved ancient city center. It’s also known for the best sweet yogurt, so you must try some.


Patan and Bhaktapur are important religious centers for Buddhist and Hindu faiths.

The first historic records show Emperor Ashoka arriving in the valley near Patan with his daughter in 250 B.C. He established the geographic outlines of Patan with four holy stupas. This makes the shape of the UNESCO world heritage site into the symbol of a Buddhist Wheel of Righteousness.

The royal palace of the Malla Kings was first built in the 3rd century B.C. by the Kirat Dynasty and is now a museum and an architectural wonder.


although the majority of Durbar Square is from Medieval times. Evidence of severe architectural damage remain from the 2015 earthquake. Scaffolding and bracing of buildings precariously hold walls from collapsing as reconstruction follows a snails pace.


It’s not hard to imagine camal trains carrying salt along the twisting streets of Bhaktapur.


Not hard to imagine Bhaktapur in Medieval times with the intact city center.

It was also a royal city with craftsman in Medieval times and the provenance continues today. Artists work in shops carving wood, metal work, stone, clay, and jewelry.


I loved both cities from the history, architecture, and shopping.  I felt sorry for our very patient guides as the ladies kept creeping into doorways. I would have loved to wander with my camera for another round about both places.  This is a photographer’s dream location, because you don’t know what you’ll see from one moment to the next.


K-K-K-K-K Katmandu

Bob Seeger wrote the song Katmandu when he was tired of his profession and wanted to escape. Hippy days are gone, but an observant person will notice marijuana growing wild in empty lots and alleys. Let me emphasize that you don’t need drugs to be high in Katmandu, because this city overloads your senses without a single enhancement. This is a place of extreme opposites. People wash themselves and their dishes from a roadside spigot. Modern appliances are taken home on the back of a bike. I found clarity and focus in Buddhist thangka art opposed by lung defying air pollution.

Traffic jams from hell don’t prevent appreciation of unspoiled mountain landscapes. The entire valley is a UNESCO site for important pilgrimages and monuments amid massive filth counter-balanced with beauty.

The profane competes with the revered and sacred. The ancient trade routes for salt, wool and silk continue to run through Katmandu. The amount of diversity and fusion of cultures left in the wake is unsurpassed.

Katmandu is the odd, bizarre, benevolent, always in a hurry, yet most compassionate and loving place on the planet.

Is Katmandu schizophrenia or extreme reality?  It is really entertaining or downright controversial. I can’t imagine anyone not loving it here.

Fifteen minutes out of the airport I saw my first cremation at the river edge. IMG_7795While flames consumed the body,  little girls walked in the muddy water with magnets trying to find offerings in the funeral ashes. Despite this macabre observation, I had a profound experience talking with a Brahman priest who spoke about our mission in life and karma. He blessed me, touching my heart with a force that I still feel today.

Monkeys’ ran around stealing cotton candy. Strange men who call themselves Holy pose around the stupas coaxing tourists to take pictures, for a price. It seemed like a creative way to be a beggar, but who am I to cast accusations? My guide made an astute observation, “Don’t all religions want to be paid?”

Soak it all in. Stop to see. Touch. Smell. Taste using your fingers the local way. Chant mantras with the background roar of motorcycles. Listen to singing bowls and inhale incense. Still your breath. Calm your mind amongst chaos. Dance with joy on the street with someone you don’t know. Reach out. Embrace. If I ever get out of here, I’ll go back to Katmandu.